Research


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Research project (§ 26 & § 27)
Duration : 2017-03-01 - 2022-02-28

The mission of OXIDISE is to resolve authentic enzymatic activities of lignocellulose degrading oxidoreductases when bound onto their polymeric substrates and to elucidate their interaction. To this purpose, high-resolution techniques will be developed in the project. Fungal oxidoreductases involved in lignocellulose processing attracted great attention in the last years - like the discovery of oxidative cellulose degradation by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO). Over 90% of biomass degrading fungal genomes contain oxidoreductases (LPMO, cellobiose dehydrogenase, laccase, lignin peroxidase, aryl alcohol oxidase,…) involved in the oxidative cleavage of the recalcitrant biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose or lignin. The elucidation of these enzyme mechanisms, interactions and kinetics is the key to understand fungal physiology and optimise biomass saccharification and biorefineries. To circumvent typical problems associated with heterogeneous reactions, assaying techniques should have a high spatial and temporal resolution. OXIDISE will develop and apply techniques based on microelectrodes, scanning electron microscopy (SECM), surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS) and microscopic fluorescence techniques to pursue five objectives: to 1) develop enzyme-modified electrodes for the detection of lignocellulose oxidising enzymes or their products. 2) miniaturise and assemble microelectrode arrays with a high spatial resolution. 3) transfer microelectrode modifications to SECM for increased spatial resolution (~10 nm) and scanning of areas. 4) investigate the interaction of oxidoreductases on polymeric substrates, e.g. the interaction of CDH/LPMO or more complex enzyme systems. 5) transfer the developed techniques to wood samples and growing fungal hyphae and their secretome. OXIDISE takes a new approach to provide crucial insight into the function of important enzymes, which so far has been somewhat neglected, possibly because of the involved experimental challenges.
Research project (§ 26 & § 27)
Duration : 2016-02-10 - 2019-02-09

The cooperation project “STOP Waste – SAVE Food” will deal with specific case studies for the reduction of food waste in the value chain processing-packaging-logistics-retail. Together with the project partners denkstatt and OFI, potential improvement scenarios will be analysed for food production, for primary and secondary packaging production as well as for optimized packing and distribution processes. Objective and comprehensive life-cycle assessments (including benefits of prevented food losses), carbon footprint calculations and cost-benefit analyses along the value chain will be carried out. The aim is to derive a guideline with environmentally and economically sensible measures and recommendations for actions. Competitive advantages will result for industry consortium members from objectively verified benefits (case studies) as well as from the opportunities for future collaborations with retailers and other value chain partners.
Research project (§ 26 & § 27)
Duration : 2017-07-01 - 2019-06-30

For consumers, the need has recently incraesed to buy wheat-free or gluten-free products. Currently around 10% of the population avoid products from wheat. In addition to celiac disease there are more health problems associated with consumption of wheat products. In particular, many reported after consumption of wheat products from stomach problems. Carbohydrates as fructans, which belong to FODMAPs - include "fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharide and polyols", can trigger an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Since the term irritable bowel syndrome is very general and very nonspecific symptoms described, it is difficult to assign unique causes. In the case of wheat also gluten is suspected. In addition, we often find the so-called intolerance to wheat or gluten sensitivity, "Non celiac wheat or gluten sensitivity" (NCWS or NCGS). These symptoms are those with the very difficult from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Recent research on the causes of gluten sensitivity have shown that so-called amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI) affected patients may trigger an autoimmune response and thus likely to cause this incompatibility. ATI have long been known as a trigger of asthma Baker. This ATI are proteins that block the enzymes of starch and protein digestion. The aim is now in the project ID WHEAT (ID: improved digestability) is to produce acceptable wheat pastries for people with irritable bowel syndrome or wheat intolerance. To this end, a multi-disciplinary approach is followed by generating basic knowledge, which is transferred to practice to develop a novel processes. First wheat varieties are examined in terms of the amount of ATI and fructans. Subsequently varieties with small amounts of these problematic ingredients and this targeted process control (sourdough and use fructophiler yeast) partial (gluten) or almost completely (fructans and fructose) degraded to develop an easily digestible wheat bakery product.

Supervised Theses and Dissertations